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Understanding Gaps Techniques & Alignments In Football

The defensive lineman is in charge of controlling the line of scrimmage. Teams who control the line of scrimmage on either side of the ball typically win the game. To control the line of scrimmage, defenses need to defend gaps. What are gaps?

Gaps are the space between the offensive lineman. Between the center and the guard is the A-Gap, between the guard and tackle is the B-Gap, between the tackle and tight end is the C-Gap, and outside out the tight end is the D-gap. Defenses must cover these gaps to stop an effective rushing attack.

In this article, we will show you what gaps are and what techniques defensive linemen line up in to control them. Let’s look at the defensive side of the ball.

How Does The Defense Control The Line Of Scrimmage?

Two common ways teams control the line of scrimmage:

  1. Gap Control
  2. Man control

Gap control is the most common, as players are put into different alignments, and they must maintain their “Gaps.”

What Are Gaps In Football?

Gaps are the areas between two players that create “holes” for running backs to run through. The bigger the gap, the easier it is for a running back to run full speed through it. The defense refers to these as gaps; offense refers to these spaces as “holes.”

The smaller the gap –  it forces running backs to slow down or bounce it to the outside. This is what the defense ultimately strives to do – slow the offense and make them work laterally.

Typically, the offense will displace the defensive lineman from their position to try to create these holes. This is more common in power schemes.

In zone schemes, offensive players will try to get the defensive player running and use their speed and leverage to create holes rather than overpower the defender.

This is more common in today’s spread game as teams use the different outside and inside zone schemes to naturally displace defenders.

Here is a fantastic visual by former vIQtory podcast guest Dub Maddox.

defensive alignments
via R4

The gaps are broken down into A-Gap, B-Gap, C-Gap, and D-Gap. The gaps are as follows:

  • A-Gap – The area between the Center and Guard (on both sides of the line). Protecting the A gaps are most important, as the A gaps are the shortest path to the end zone
  • B-Gap – The area between the Guard and Tackle (on both sides of the line).
  • C- Gap – The area between the Tackle and Tight End ( on both sides of the line).
  • D-Gap – The area outside of the Tight End

Man Control

Now that we know what the gaps are let’s look at man control.

Man control is when teams have defensive linemen play through certain linemen to control more than one gap. This is also known as “Two-Gapping.”

Two-gapping requires a defensive lineman to control the opposing offensive lineman, rip off the block and make the tackle. This defensive technique is common in 3-4 Defenses and 4-3 defenses that play an even front.

The defensive techniques & alignments that are often played when playing man control are 0, 2, 4, and 6 techniques. Let’s learn about defensive techniques to help you better understand man and gap control.

Defensive Techniques & Alignments

The defensive lineman’s alignment and control of the line of scrimmage is a large part of stopping the run game. Players are positioned in certain gaps and techniques to ensure they can maintain their gap integrity. Let’s take another look at the image by Dub Maddox to understand the defensive techniques better.

Head Up Alignments

When a defensive lineman lines up directly in front of the defender, these are identified as even numbers. See the pictures below for a visual reference.

0 Technique: Head-Up The Center

Defender lined up in 0 technique

2 Technique: Head-Up The Guard

Defender lined up in 2 technique

4 Technique: Head-Up The Tackle

Defender lined up in 4 technique

Head-up the Tight End is often referred to as 6!

These are the “man” alignments we had mentioned earlier. Playing a defender head up makes it easier to punch them in both shoulders and play 2 different gaps.

Outside Alignments

Odd Number techniques identify outside alignments. This is about the defensive lineman lining up on the outside shoulder.

1 Technique: Outside Shoulder Of The Center

Defender lined up in 1 technique

3 Technique: Outside Shoulder Of The Guard

Defender lined up in 3 technique

5 Technique: Outside Shoulder Of The Tackle

Defender lined up in 5 technique

The outside shoulder of the tight end is a 7

Outside alignments help players control guards, tackles, and even the center from the outside. This helps players better position the popular “zone” schemes that we often see. It puts players at a disadvantage to play 2 gaps but helps players control 1 gap.

Inside Alignments

Inside alignments are head-up numbers but with an “i” attached to them. Very simple!

Because we’re working out from the football, there is no “inside” in the center. The inside techniques start on the guard.

2i Technique: The Inside Technique Of The Guard

Defender lined up in 2i technique

4i Technique: The Inside Technique Of The Tackle

Defender lined up in 4i technique

The 6i is identified as inside of the tight-end

Inside alignments are often seen in 3 man fronts but can also be utilized in 4-man fronts. 4i’s and 2’s help defensive tackles and defensive ends punch the guard and tackle and control the inside gap.

Identifying Fronts With The Alignments

Defensive fronts are often identified with where the 4 or 3 defensive linemen line up. The most common fronts are identified as follows:

  • Over Front
  • Under Front
  • Bear (Double Eagle) Front
  • 4i’s

Over/Under Front

The over and under front are similar to each other. They both involve using a 3 technique and a 1 technique. The difference between the two is the 3 technique in an over front is set TO the strength.

Teams will often dictate strength based on the TE (or in the spread game, they will use opposite/to the running the back.

In an under front, the 3 technique is set AWAY from the strength of the running back. This changes the gap responsibilities for the linebackers.  There are benefits to each front; it’s all preference to each coach and how they implement them into their defense.

Bear (Double Eagle ) Front

The bear, also known as the double eagle front, utilizes 3 interior linemen. The nose is typically lined up over the center, whether in a 0 or 1 technique.

The other 2 interior linemen are lining up over the guard, either in a 2, 2i, or a 3 technique. This covers the interior lineman and typically allows linebackers to roam free in between the tackles.

4i Front

The 4i front is run out of the 3-4. This front has spread teams trouble as it allows defenses to play aggressively to the run and have an extra defender in the passing game.

Exactly how it sounds, the 4i front uses interior lineman in “4i” techniques, inside shade on the tackle. The other lineman lines up head up the center in a 0.

Conclusion

Each scheme depends on the coach’s personnel. Coaches who are bigger upfront may opt to go with a 4-3 look and play gap control with their linebackers and defensive lineman.

Smaller-sized teams may look to go to a 3-4 and use their lineman to slant and cause confusion for the opponent’s blocking scheme.

There is no right or wrong answer. Every scheme fits every team and personnel differently.

One common thing is the alignments and defensive techniques.

Coaches may create their own system of defensive line alignments; however, with our research, this is the most common system we’ve seen. Head-up techniques are often used for teams that have player control 2-gaps. Inside and outside shoulder techniques are for gap control schedules where a player may be responsible for one gap!

Do you have a different style of calling alignments or defensive techniques? We’d love to hear them. We’re always interested in learning new coaching styles and tactics when trying to counter the offense’s run game.

Franxis Clickenger

Sunday 6th of June 2021

Just want a bbetter understanding of positions and how they're utili zed